MADRAS

MADRAS (today Chennai), city in S. India. Formerly known as Fort St. George, Madras was the first territorial acquisition of the English East India Company in 1639. In the last decades of the 17th century its diamond trade attracted Anglo-Portuguese Jewish merchants, who were allowed by the Company to establish a merchant colony which continued until the end of the 18th century. In the Madras corporation, established in 1688, the "Hebrew merchants" were represented by Jewish aldermen. Among the Jewish merchants prominent in the early days were bartholomew rodrigues , Domingo do Porto, alvaro da fonseca , jacques paiva , Francis Marques, Isaac do Porto, Joseph d'Almanza, and isaac sardo abendana . In the 18th century many Ashkenazi Jews from London participated in the profitable trade, including marcus moses and his family, Ephraim Isaac, the franks , and later the Portuguese family de castro and salomon franco . The Jewish merchants in Madras were integrated into the English society and were on good social terms with several of the governors. The fluctuating nature of the merchant colony apparently prevented the organization of a Jewish community and the only communal institution seems to have been a cemetery. Some tombstones still remain, but they have been transferred to a new municipal site in Madras called the "People's Park," the entrance of which bears a tablet inscribed in Hebrew Beit ha-Ḥayyim. Only 20 Jews were living in Madras in 1968. Unlike those of Cochin, bombay , and calcutta , the Jews in   Madras did not create any literary works. It was only due to the Christian mission that some Hebrew books were published there in the 19th century. A noteworthy Jewish literary event there was the publication of the Travels from Jerusalem… of David d'Beth Hillel in 1832. In the early 21st century the Jewish community of Chennai consisted mainly of expatriates. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fischel, in: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 3 (1960), 78–107, 175–95 (incl. bibl.); Roth, Mag Bibl, 106; H.D. Love, Vestiges of Old Madras, 4 vols. (1913); A. Yaari, Ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Arẓot ha-Mizraḥ, 2 (1940), 98–99. (Walter Joseph Fischel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • MADRAS — Une des principales villes de la république de l’Inde avec Bombay (Mumbai), Delhi et Calcutta, Madras comptait 3 841 000 habitants lors du recensement de 1991 (5 420 000 hab. pour l’agglomération). C’est à partir de Madras, troisième comptoir… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Madras — • Archdiocese in India Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Madras     Madras     † Catholic En …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Madras [2] — Madras (offiziell: Presidency of Fort Saint George), Präsidentschaft des britisch ind. Kaiserreichs (s. Karte »Ostindien«), der südlichste Teil der vorderindischen Halbinsel, erstreckt sich vom Kap Komorin unter 8°4 nördl. Br. am Golf von… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Madras [3] — Madras, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen britischindischen Präsidentschaft (s. oben), an der Koromandelküste unter 13°4 nördl. Br., drittgrößte Stadt des britisch indischen Kaiserreichs, im Sommer Europäern durch Cholera, Fieber und Dysenterie… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Madras — Madras, die Hauptstadt der engl. ostind. Compagnie auf der Koromandelküste, unter dem glücklichsten Himmelsstrich gelegen, die Hauptstation für den Handel zwischen England und Indien, der Sammelplatz aller der fleißigen Shawlarbeiter, Tuch und… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • madras — MADRÁS s.n. Ţesătură cu urzeală de mătase şi cu bătătură de bumbac. [< fr. madras, cf. Madras – oraş în India]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 22.05.2005. Sursa: DN  MÁDRAS s. n. ţesătură cu urzeală de mătase şi bătătură de bumbac. (< fr. madras) …   Dicționar Român

  • madras — ma*dras , n. [So named after Madras, a city and presidency of India.] 1. A large silk and cotton kerchief, usually of bright colors, such as those often used by negroes for turbans. A black woman in blue cotton gown, red and yellow madras turban …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Madras — Madras, 1) Präsidentschaft des Angloindischen Reichs, den Osten u. die Südspitze des Dekan umfassend, 6242 QM. ohne die einheimischen Schutzstaaten, mit letztern aber 8690 QM. groß, im Westen von den Westlichen Ghats, im Osten von den Östlichen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Madras — Madras, OR U.S. city in Oregon Population (2000): 5078 Housing Units (2000): 1952 Land area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Madras, OR — U.S. city in Oregon Population (2000): 5078 Housing Units (2000): 1952 Land area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.182280 sq. miles (5.652079 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

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